Tissue engineering and tissue regeneration is rapidly expanding research area which involves interdisciplinary approaches to the development of regenerative medicine aimed at restoring and improving the functioning of tissue as well as a whole organ. It brings together various disciplines from material engineering, natural science and life science fields with the intention to alleviate present challenges of harvesting and storing tissues for transplantation. It has been demonstrated that adipose derived stem cells possess versatile therapeutic potential in various clinical contexts such as facilitation of wound healing, bone and cartilage regeneration and rehabilitation of cardiac functions among others. On the other hand material engineering has developed improved procedures for preparation of nano-sized materials which emerged as promising candidates in producing scaffolds able to better mimic the nanostructure in natural extracellular matrix. Overall, nanomaterials exhibit superior performance comparing to microparticulate matter. They exhibit improved biocompatibile, mechanical, physico-chemical and magnetic properties which advance tissue growth and regeneration. The aim of this book is to address recent advances in the field and to review the preparation and functioning of various nano-materials (nanoparticles, nanofibers and the surface modifications of implantable materials) in the biological context. Furthermore, the book summarizes the applications of nano-materials to various tissues, which are classiﬁed into four types depending on their functions: protective, mechano-sensitive, electro-active, and shear stress-sensitive tissues.